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Computational Logic
The (ISO-)Prolog Programming Language

(ISO-)Prolog

Programming interface (writing and running programs)

Our Development Environment: The Ciao System


minipage0.9
itemize Reading the first slides of the Ciao tutorial regarding the use of the compiler, top-level, debuggers, environment, module system, etc. is suggested at this point. Also, reading the corresponding parts of the Ciao manual.

Prolog Syntax and Terminology

Prolog Syntax -- Defining Operators

Prolog Syntax -- Operators (Contd.)

  • Examples:
    Standard Notation Operator Notation
    '+'(a,'/'(b,c)) a+b/c
    is(X, mod(34, 7)) X is 34 mod 7
    '<'('+'(3,4),8) 3+4 < 8
    '='(X,f(Y)) X = f(Y)
    '-'(3) -3
    spy('/'(foo,3)) spy foo/3
    ':-'(p(X),q(Y)) p(X) :- q(Y)
    ':-'(p(X),','(q(Y),r(Z))) p(X) :- q(Y),r(Z)


  • Note that, with this syntax convention, Prolog clauses are also Prolog terms!

  • Parenthesis must always be used for operators with higher priority than 1000
    (i.e., the priority of ','): ..., assert( (p :- q) ), ...

  • Operators are local to modules (explained later).

Prolog Syntax -- Operators (Contd.)

  • Typical standard operators:

     :- op( 1200, xfx, [ :-, --> ]).
     :- op( 1200,  fx, [ :-, ?- ]).
     :- op( 1150,  fx, [ mode, public, dynamic,
                         multifile, block, meta_predicate,
                         parallel, sequential ]).
     :- op( 1100, xfy, [ ; ]).
     :- op( 1050, xfy, [ -> ]).
     :- op( 1000, xfy, [ ',' ]).
     :- op(  900,  fy, [ \+, spy, nospy ]).
     :- op(  700, xfx, [ =, is, =.., ==, \==, @<, @>, @=<, @>=,
                                     =:=, =\=, <, >, =<, >= ]).
     :- op(  550, xfy, [ : ]).
     :- op(  500, yfx, [ +, -, #, /\, \/ ]).
     :- op(  500,  fx, [ +, - ]).
     :- op(  400, yfx, [ *, /, //, <<, >> ]).
     :- op(  300, xfx, [ mod ]).
     :- op(  200, xfy, [ ^ ]).

The Execution Mechanism of Prolog


  • Always execute literals in the body of clauses left-to-right.

  • At a choice point, take first unifying clause (i.e., the leftmost unexplored branch).

  • On failure, backtrack to the next unexplored clause of last choice point.


grandparent(C,G):- parent(C,P), parent(P,G).

parent(C,P):- father(C,P).
parent(C,P):- mother(C,P).

father(charles,philip).
father(ana,george).

mother(charles,ana).


\psfig{figure=/home/logalg/public_html/slides/Figs/prolog1.eps,width=0.7\basewidth}


  • Check how Prolog explores this tree by running the debugger!

Comparison with Conventional Languages

  • Conventional languages and Prolog both implement (forward) continuations:
    the place to go after a procedure call succeeds. I.e., in:
    p(X,Y):- q(X,Z), r(Z,Y).
    

    q(X,Z) :- ...
    
    when the call to q/2 finishes (with ``success''), execution continues in the next procedure call (literal) in p/2, i.e., the call to r/2 (the forward continuation).

  • In Prolog, when there are procedures with multiple definitions, there is also a backward continuation: the place to go to if there is a failure. I.e., in:
    p(X,Y):- q(X,Z), r(Z,Y).
    

    q(X,Z) :- ...
    q(X,Z) :- ...
    
    if the call to q/2 succeeds, it is as above, but if it fails at any point, execution continues (``backtracks'') at the second clause of q/2 (the backward continuation).

  • Again, the debugger (see later) can be useful to observe execution.

Control of Search in Prolog


The programmer has at least three important ways of controlling execution:

1
The ordering of literals in the body of a clause:
  • Profound effect on the size of the computation (in the limit, on termination).
    Compare executing p(X), q(X,Y) with executing q(X,Y), p(X) with:
    p(X):- X = 4.      q(X, Y):- X = 1, Y = a, ...
    p(X):- X = 5.      q(X, Y):- X = 2, Y = b, ...
                       q(X, Y):- X = 4, Y = c, ...
                       q(X, Y):- X = 4, Y = d, ...
    
    p(X), q(X,Y) more efficient: execution of p/2 reduces the choices of q/2.

  • Note that optimal order depends on the variable instantiation mode:
    E.g., in q(X,d), p(X), this order is better than p(X), q(X,d).

Control of Search in Prolog (Contd.)

2
The ordering of clauses in a predicate:
  • Affects the order in which solutions are generated.
    E.g., in the previous example we get:
    {X=4,Y=c} as the first solution and {X=4,Y=d} as the second.
    If we reorder q/2:
    p(X):- X = 4.      q(X, Y):- X = 4, Y = d, ...
    p(X):- X = 5.      q(X, Y):- X = 4, Y = c. ...
                       q(X, Y):- X = 2, Y = b, ...
                       q(X, Y):- X = 1, Y = a, ...
    
    we get {X=4,Y=d} first and then {X=4,Y=c}.

  • If a subset of the solutions is requested, then clause order affects:
    • the size of the computation,
    • and, at the limit, termination!
    Else, little significance unless computation is infinite and/or pruning is used.

3
The pruning operators (e.g., ``cut''), which cut choices dynamically -see later.

Programmer Interface: The Classical Top-Level Shell


  • Modern Prolog compilers offer several ways of writing, compiling, and running programs.
  • Classical model:
    • User interacts directly with top level (includes compiler/interpreter).


    • A prototypical session with a classical Prolog-style, text-based, top-level shell (details are those of the Ciao system, user input in bold):
      [37]> ciao Invoke the system
      Ciao 1.11 #211: Thu Mar 18 15:28:12 CET 2004
      ?- use_module(file). Load your program file
      yes
      ?- query_containing_variable_X. Query the program
      X = binding_for_X ; See one answer, ask for another using ``;''
      X = another_binding_for_X $<$enter$>$ Discard rest of answers using $<$enter$>$
      ?- another query. Submit another query
      ?- .......
      ?- halt. End the session, also with ^ D

Traditional (``Edinburgh'') Program Load

  • Compile program (much faster, but typically no debugging capabilities):
        ?- compile(file).
    

  • Consult program (interpreted, slower, used for debugging in traditional systems):
        ?- consult(file).  
        ?- [file].
    

  • Compiling/consulting several programs:
        ?- compile([file1,file2]).
        ?- [file1,file2].
    

  • Enter clauses from the terminal (not recommended, except for quick hacks):
        ?- [user].
        | append([],Ys,Ys).
        | append([X|Xs],Ys,[X|Zs]):- append(Xs,Ys,Zs).
        | ^D 
        {user consulted, 0 msec 480 bytes}
        yes
        ?-
    

Ciao Program Load

  • Most traditional (``Edinburgh'') program load commands can be used.
  • But more modern primitives available which take into account module system.
    Same commands used as in the code inside a module:
    • use_module/1 - for loading modules.
    • ensure_loaded/1 - for loading user files.
    • use_package/1 - for loading packages (see later).

  • In summary, top-level behaves essentially like a module.

  • In practice, done automatically within graphical environment:
    • Open the source file in the graphical environment.
    • Edit it (with syntax coloring, etc.).
    • Load it by typing C-c l or using menus.
    • Interact with it in top level.

Top Level Interaction Example


  • File member.pl:
    :- module(member,[member/2]).
    
    member(X, [X|_Rest]).
    member(X, [_Y|Rest]):- member(X, Rest).
    

?- use_module(member).
yes
?- member(c,[a,b,c]).
yes
?- member(d,[a,b,c]).
no
?- member(X,[a,b,c]).
X = a ?  ;
X = b ?  (intro)
yes

Tracing an Execution with The ``Byrd Box Model''


  • Procedures (predicates) seen as ``black boxes'' in the usual way.

  • However, simple call/return not enough, due to backtracking.

  • Instead, ``4-port box view'' of predicates:

    \psfig{figure=/home/logalg/public_html/slides/Figs/prolog3.eps,width=0.8\basewidth}

  • Principal events in Prolog execution (goal is a unique, run-time call to a predicate):
    • Call goal: Start to execute goal.
    • Exit goal: Succeed in producing a solution to goal.
    • Redo goal: Attempt to find an alternative solution to goal
      (sol$_{i+1}$ if sol$_{i}$ was the one computed in the previous exit).
    • Fail goal: exit with fail, if no further solutions to goal found (i.e., sol$_{i}$ was the last one, and the goal which called this box is entered via the ``redo'' port).

Debugging Example

Ciao 1.13 #0: Fri Jul 8 11:46:55 CEST 2005
?- use_module('/home/logalg/public_html/slides/lmember.pl').
yes
?- debug_module(lmember).
{Consider reloading module lmember}
{Modules selected for debugging: [lmember]}
{No module is selected for source debugging}
yes
?- trace.
{The debugger will first creep -- showing everything (trace)}
yes
{trace}
?-

  • Much easier: open file and type C-c d (or use CiaoDbg menu).

Debugging Example (Contd.)

?- lmember(X,[a,b]).
   1  1  Call: lmember:lmember(_282,[a,b]) ? 
   1  1  Exit: lmember:lmember(a,[a,b]) ? 
X = a ? ;
   1  1  Redo: lmember:lmember(a,[a,b]) ? 
   2  2  Call: lmember:lmember(_282,[b]) ? 
   2  2  Exit: lmember:lmember(b,[b]) ? 
   1  1  Exit: lmember:lmember(b,[a,b]) ? 
X = b ? ;
   1  1  Redo: lmember:lmember(b,[a,b]) ? 
   2  2  Redo: lmember:lmember(b,[b]) ? 
   3  3  Call: lmember:lmember(_282,[]) ? 
   3  3  Fail: lmember:lmember(_282,[]) ? 
   2  2  Fail: lmember:lmember(_282,[b]) ? 
   1  1  Fail: lmember:lmember(_282,[a,b]) ? 
no

Options During Tracing

h Get help -- gives this list (possibly with more options)
c Creep forward to the next event
  Advances execution until next call/exit/redo/fail
intro (same as above)
s Skip over the details of executing the current goal
  Resume tracing when execution returns from current goal
l Leap forward to next ``spypoint'' (see below)
f Make the current goal fail
  This forces the last pending branch to be taken
a Abort the current execution
r Redo the current goal execution
  very useful after a failure or exit with weird result
b Break -- invoke a recursive top level


  • Many other options in modern Prolog systems.
  • Also, graphical and source debuggers available in these systems.

Spypoints (and breakpoints)

  • ?- spy foo/3.

    Place a spypoint on predicate foo of arity 3 - always trace events involving this predicate.

  • ?- nospy foo/3.

    Remove the spypoint in foo/3.

  • ?- nospyall.

    Remove all spypoints.


  • In many systems (e.g., Ciao) also breakpoints can be set at particular program points within the graphical environment.

Debugger Modes

  • ?- debug.
    Turns debugger on. It will first leap, stopping at spypoints and breakpoints.

  • ?- nodebug.
    Turns debugger off.

  • trace.
    The debugger will first creep, as if at a spypoint.

  • notrace.
    The debugger will leap, stopping at spypoints and breakpoints.

Built-in Arithmetic

  • Practicality: interface to the underlying CPU arithmetic capabilities.

  • These arithmetic operations are not as general as their logical counterparts.

  • Interface: evaluator of arithmetic terms.

  • The type of arithmetic terms:
    • a number is an arithmetic term,
    • if $f$ is an $n$-ary arithmetic functor and $X_1,...,X_n$ are arithmetic terms then $f(X_1,..., X_n)$ is an arithmetic term.

  • Arithmetic functors: +, -, *, / (float quotient), // (integer quotient), mod, and more. Examples:

    • (3*X+Y)/Z, correct if when evaluated X, Y and Z are arithmetic terms, otherwise it will raise an error.
    • a+3*X raises an error (because a is not an arithmetic term).

Built-in Arithmetic (Contd.)

  • Built-in arithmetic predicates:

    • the usual <, >, =<, >=, =:= (arithmetic equal), =$\backslash$= (arithmetic not equal), ...
      Both arguments are evaluated and their results are compared
    • Z is X
      X (which must be an arithmetic term) is evaluated and result is unified with Z.

  • Examples: let X and Y be bound to 3 and 4, respectively, and Z be a free variable:

    • Y $<$ X+1, X is Y+1, X =:= Y. fail (the system will backtrack).
    • Y $<$ a+1, X is Z+1, X =:= f(a). error (abort).

Arithmetic Programs

  • plus(X,Y,Z) :- Z is X + Y

    • Only works in one direction (X and Y bound to arithmetic terms).

    • Meta-logical tests (see later) allow using it in both directions.

    • We have lost the recursive structure of the numbers.

    • But we have won (a lot) in performance!

  • Factorial:

    Using Peano arithmetic:
    factorial(0,s(0)).
    factorial(s(N),F):-
        factorial(N,F1),
        times(s(N),F1,F).
    
    Using Prolog arithmetic:
    factorial(0,1). 
    factorial(N,F):-
        N > 0,
        N1 is N-1,
        factorial(N1,F1),
        F is F1*N.
    

  • Wrong goal order can raise an error (e.g., moving last call to is/2 before call to factorial).

Type Checking Predicates

  • Unary relations which check the type of a term:
    • integer(X)
    • float(X)
    • number(X)
    • atom(X) (nonvariable term of arity 0 other than a number)
    • atomic(X) atom or number
    • ...

  • They behave as if defined by a (possibly infinite) table of facts (in part, see below).

  • They either succeed or fail, but do not produce an error.

  • Thus, they cannot be used to generate (e.g., if argument is a variable, they fail instead of instantiating it to possible values).

  • This behaviour is outside first order logic because it allows checking the instantiation state of a variable.

Type Checking Predicates (Contd.)

  • Example: implementing a better behavior for plus/3:

    plus(X,Y,Z):- number(X),number(Y), Z is X + Y.
    plus(X,Y,Z):- number(X),number(Z), Y is Z - X.
    plus(X,Y,Z):- number(Y),number(Z), X is Z - Y.
    

    Then:

    ?- plus(3,Y,5).
    Y = 2 ?
    

  • Still, it cannot be used to partition a number into two others:

    ?- plus(X,Y,5).
    no
    

    (in fact, this should raise an error, rather than simply failing).

Structure Inspection

  • functor(X, F, A):
    • X is a compound term f(X1,...,Xn)$\rightarrow$ F=f A = n

    • F is the atom f and A is the integer n $\rightarrow$ X = f(X1,..,Xn)

    • Error if X, and either F or A are variables

    • Fails if the unification fails, A is not an integer, or F is not an atom

    Examples:

    • functor(t(b,a),F,A) $\rightarrow$ F=t, A=2.
    • functor(Term,f,3) $\rightarrow$ Term = f(_,_,_).
    • functor(Vector,v,100) $\rightarrow$ Vector = v(_, ... ,_).
    (Note: in some systems functor arity is limited to 256)

Structure Inspection (Contd.)


  • arg(N, X, Arg):

    • N integer, X compound term $\rightarrow$ Arg unified with n-th argument of X.

    • Allows accessing a structure argument in constant time and in a compact way.

    • Error if N is not an integer, or if X is a free variable.

    • Fails if the unification fails.
    Examples:
    ?- _T=date(9,February,1947), arg(3,_T,X).
    X = 1947
    ?- _T=date(9,February,1947), _T=date(_,_,X).
    X = 1947
    ?- functor(Array,array,5),  
         arg(1,Array,black),      
         arg(5,Array,white).      
    Array = array(black,_,_,_,white).
    

  • What does ?- arg(2,[a,b,c,d],X). return?

Example of Structure Inspection

  • Define subterm(Sub,Term) (Term will always be a compound term):

    subterm(Term,Term).
    subterm(Sub,Term):- 
        functor(Term,F,N), 
        subterm(N,Sub,Term).
    
    subterm(N,Sub,Term):-     
        arg(N,Term,Arg),   % also checks N > 0 (arg/1 fails otherwise!)
        subterm(Sub,Arg).
    subterm(N,Sub,Term):- 
        N>1, 
        N1 is N-1, 
        subterm(N1,Sub,Term).
    

Example of Structure Access

  • Define add_arrays(A1,A2,A3):
    add_arrays(A1,A2,A3):-    % Same N imposes equal length:
        functor(A1,array,N), functor(A2,array,N), functor(A3,array,N),
        add_elements(N,A1,A2,A3).
    
    add_elements(0,_A1,_A2,_A3).
    add_elements(I,A1,A2,A3):-
         I>0, arg(I,A1,X1), arg(I,A2,X2), arg(I,A3,X3),
         X3 is X1 + X2, I1 is I - 1,
         add_elements(I1,A1,A2,A3).
    

  • Alternative, using lists instead of structures:
    add_arrays_lists([],[],[]).
    add_arrays_lists([X|Xs],[Y|Ys],[Z|Zs]):-
        Z is X + Y,
        add_arrays_lists(Xs,Ys,Zs).
    

  • In the latter case, where do we check that the three lists are of equal length?

Higher-Order Structure Inspection

  • T =.. L (known as ``univ'')

    • L is the decomposition of a term T into a list comprising its principal functor followed by its arguments.

      ?- date(9,february,1947) =.. L.
      L = [date,9,february,1947].
      ?- _F = '+', X =.. [_F,a,b].
      X = a + b.
      

    • Allows implementing higher-order primitives (see later).

      Example: Extending derivative

      derivative(sin(X),X,cos(X)). 
      derivative(cos(X),X,-sin(X)). 
      derivative(FG_X, X, DF_G * DG_X):-
          FG_X =.. [_, G_X], 
          derivative(FG_X, G_X, DF_G), derivative(G_X, X, DG_X).
      

    • But do not use unless strictly necessary: expensive in time and memory.

Conversion Between Strings and Atoms (New Atom Creation)

  • Classical primitive: name(A,S)

    • A is the atom/number whose name is the list of ASCII characters S
      ?- name(hello,S).
      S = [104,101,108,108,111] 
      ?- name(A,[104,101,108,108,111]).
      A = hello
      ?- name(A,"hello").
      A = hello
      
    • Ambiguity when converting strings which represent numbers.
      Example: ?- name('1',X), name(Y,X).
    • In the ISO standard fixed by dividing into two:
      • atom_codes(Atom,String)
      • number_codes(Number,String)

Meta-Logical Predicates

  • var(X): succeed iff X is a free variable.
    ?- var(X), X = f(a). % Succeeds
    ?- X = f(a), var(X). % Fails

  • nonvar(X): succeed iff X is not a free variable.
    ?- X = f(Y), nonvar(X). % Succeeds

  • ground(X): succeed iff X is fully instantiated.
    ?- X = f(Y), ground(X). % Fails

  • Outside the scope of first order logic.

  • Uses:
    • control goal order,
    • restore some flexibility to programs using certain builtins.

Meta-Logical Predicates (Contd.)

  • Example:
    length(Xs,N):- 
        var(Xs), integer(N), length_num(N,Xs).
    length(Xs,N):- 
        nonvar(Xs), length_list(Xs,N).
    
    length_num(0,[]).
    length_num(N,[_|Xs]):- 
        N > 0, N1 is N - 1, length_num(N1,Xs).
    
    length_list([],0).
    length_list([X|Xs],N):- 
        length_list(Xs,N1), N is N1 + 1.
    

  • But note that it is not really needed: the normal definition of length is actually reversible! (although less efficient than length_num(N,L) when L is a variable).

Comparing Non-ground Terms

  • Many applications need comparisons between non-ground/non-numeric terms.

  • Identity tests:
    • X == Y (identical)
    • X $\backslash$== Y (not identical)
    ?- f(X) == f(X). %Succeeds
    ?- f(X) == f(Y). %Fails
  • Term ordering:
    • X @$>$ Y, X @$>=$ Y, X @$<$ Y, X @$=<$ Y (alphabetic/lexicographic order)
    ?- f(a) @> f(b). %Fails
    ?- f(b) @> f(a). %Succeeds
    ?- f(X) @> f(Y). %Implementation dependent!

Comparing Non-ground Terms (Contd.)

  • Reconsider subterm/2 with non-ground terms
    subterm(Sub,Term):-  Sub == Term.
    subterm(Sub,Term):-  nonvar(Term),
                         functor(Term,F,N), 
                         subterm(N,Sub,Term).
    

    where subterm/3 is identical to the previous definition

  • Insert an item into an ordered list:

    insert([], Item, [Item]).
    insert([H|T], Item, [H|T]):- H == Item.
    insert([H|T], Item, [Item, H|T]):- H @> Item.
    insert([H|T], Item, [H|NewT]) :- H @< Item, insert(T, Item, NewT).
    

  • Compare with the same program with the second clause defined as

    insert([H|T], Item, [Item|T]):- H = Item.
    

Input/Output

  • A minimal set of input-output predicates (``DEC-10 Prolog I/O''):

Class Predicate Explanation
I/O stream control see(File) File becomes the current input stream.
  seeing(File) The current input stream is File.
  seen Close the current input stream.
  tell(File) File becomes the current output stream.
  telling(File) The current output stream is File.
  told Close the current output stream.
Term I/O write(X) Write the term X on the current output stream.
  nl Start a new line on the current output stream.
  read(X) Read a term (finished by a full stop) from the current input stream and unify it with X.
Character I/O put_code(N) Write the ASCII character code N. N can be a string of length one.
  get_code(N) Read the next character code and unify its ASCII code with N.

Input/Output (Contd.)

  • Other stream-based input-output predicates:

Class Predicate Explanation
I/O stream control open(File,M,S) Open `File' with mode M and return in S the stream associated with the file. M may be read, write or append.
  close(Stream) Close the stream `Stream'.
Term I/O write(S,X) Write the term X on stream S.
  nl(S) Start a new line on stream S.
  read(S,X) Read a term (finished by a full stop) from the stream S and unify it with X.
Character I/O put_code(S,N) Write the ASCII character code N on stream S.
  get_code(S,N) Read from stream S the next character code and unify its ASCII code with N.

Input/Output (Contd.)

  • Example:

    write_list_to_file(L,F) :- 
        telling(OldOutput),             % Grab current output stream.
        tell(F), write_list(L), told,   % Write into F, close.
        tell(OldOutput).                % Reset previous output stream.
    
    write_list([]).
    write_list([X|Xs]):- write(X), nl, write_list(Xs).
    

  • More powerful and format-based input-output predicates are available (see, e.g., format/2 and format/3 -Prolog system manuals).

  • All these input-output predicates are ``side-effects''!

Pruning Operator: Cut

  • A ``cut'' (predicate !/0) commits Prolog to all the choices made since the parent goal was unified with the head of the clause in which the cut appears.

  • Thus, it prunes:
    • all clauses below the clause in which the cut appears, and
    • all alternative solutions to the goals in the clause to the left of the cut.
    But it does not affect the search in the goals to the right of the cut.
    s(a).          p(X,Y):- l(X), ...              r(a).
    s(b).          p(X,Y):- r(X), !, ...           r(b).
                   p(X,Y):- m(X), ...
    
    with query ?- s(A),p(B,C).
    If execution reaches the cut (!):
    • The second alternative of r/1 is not considered.
    • The third clause of p/2 is not considered.

Pruning Operator: Cut (Contd.)

s(a).          p(X,Y):- l(X), ...                  r(a).
s(b).          p(X,Y):- r(X), !, ...               r(b).
               p(X,Y):- m(X), ...

\psfig{figure=/home/logalg/public_html/slides/Figs/prolog2_color.eps,width=0.9\basewidth}

``Types'' of Cut

  • White cuts: do not discard solutions.

    max(X,Y,X):- X > Y, !.
    max(X,Y,Y):- X =< Y.
    
    They affect neither completeness nor correctness - use them freely.
    (In many cases the system ``introduces'' them automatically.)

  • Green cuts: discard correct solutions which are not needed.
    address(X,Add):- home_address(X,Add), !.
    address(X,Add):- business_address(X,Add).
    
    membercheck(X,[X|Xs]):- !.
    membercheck(X,[Y|Xs]):- membercheck(X,Xs).
    
    They affect completeness but not correctness.
    Necessary in many situations (but beware!).

``Types'' of Cut (Contd.)

  • Red cuts: discard solutions which are not correct according to the intended meaning.

    • Example:
       
      max(X,Y,X):- X > Y,!.
      max(X,Y,Y).
      
      wrong answers to, e.g., ?- max(5, 2, 2).

    • Example:
       
      days_in_year(X,366):- leap_year(X),!.
      days_in_year(X,365).
      
      wrong answers to, e.g., ?- days_in_year(a, D).

    Red cuts affect completeness and one can no longer rely on the strict declarative interpretation of the program for reasoning about correctness - avoid when possible.

Meta-calls and Implementing Higher Order

  • The meta-call call(X) converts a term X into a goal and calls it.

  • When called, X must be instantiated to a term, otherwise an error is reported.

  • Used for meta-programming, specially interpreters and shells.
    Also for defining negation (as we will see) and implementing higher order.

  • Example:
    q(a).                  p(X) :- call(X).
    ?- p(q(Y)).
    Y = a
    
  • Example:
    q(a,b).                  apply(F,Args) :- G =.. [F|Args], call(G).
    ?- apply(q,[Y,Z]).
    Y = a
    Z = b
    

Meta-calls - Aggregation Predicates

  • Other meta-calls are, e.g., findall/3, bagof/3, and setof/3.

  • findall(Term, Goal, ListResults): ListResults is the set of all instances of Term such that Goal is satisfied

    • If there are no instances of Term ListResults is []

    • For termination, the number of solutions should be finite (and enumerable in finite time).

likes(bill, cider).
likes(dick, beer).
likes(tom, beer).
likes(tom, cider).
likes(harry, beer).
likes(jan, cider).
?- findall(X, likes(X,Y), S).
S = [bill,dick,tom,tom,harry,jan] ? 
yes
?- findall(X, likes(X,water), S).
S = [] ? 
yes
?-

Meta-calls - Aggregation Predicates (Contd.)

  • setof(Term, Goal, ListResults): ListResults is the ordered set (no duplicates) of all instances of Term such that Goal is satisfied

    • If there are no instances of Term the predicate fails

    • The set should be finite (and enumerable in finite time)

    • If there are un-instantiated variables in Goal which do not also appear in Term then a call to this built-in predicate may backtrack, generating alternative values for ListResults corresponding to different instantiations of the free variables of Goal

    • Variables in Goal will not be treated as free if they are explicitly bound within Goal by an existential quantifier as in Y^...
      (then, they behave as in findall/3)

  • bagof/3 same, but returns list unsorted and with duplicates (in backtracking order)

Meta-calls - Aggregation Predicates: Examples



likes(bill, cider).
likes(dick, beer).
likes(harry, beer).
likes(jan, cider).
likes(tom, beer).
likes(tom, cider).
?- setof(X, likes(X,Y), S).
S = [dick,harry,tom],
Y = beer ? ;
S = [bill,jan,tom],
Y = cider ? ;
no

?- setof((Y,S), setof(X, likes(X,Y), S), SS).
SS = [(beer,[dick,harry,tom]),
      (cider,[bill,jan,tom])] ? ;
no

?- setof(X, Y^(likes(X,Y)), S).
S = [bill,dick,harry,jan,tom] ? ;
no

Meta-calls - Negation as Failure

  • Uses the meta-call facilities, the cut and a system predicate fail that fails when executed (similar to calling a=b).

    not(Goal) :- call(Goal), !, fail.
    not(Goal).
    

  • Available as the (prefix) predicate $\backslash$+/1: $\backslash$+ member(c, [a,k,l])

  • It will never instantiate variables.

  • Termination of not(Goal) depends on termination of Goal. not(Goal) will terminate if a success node for Goal is found before an infinite branch.

  • It is very useful but dangerous:
    unmarried_student(X):- not(married(X)), student(X).
    student(joe).
    married(john).
    

  • Works properly for ground goals (programmer's responsibility to ensure this).

Cut-Fail

  • Cut-fail combinations allow forcing the failure of a predicate -- somehow specifying a negative answer (useful but very dangerous!).
  • Example - testing groundness: fail as soon as a free variable is found.

    ground(Term):- var(Term), !, fail.
    ground(Term):- 
        nonvar(Term), 
        functor(Term,F,N),
        ground(N,Term).
    
    ground(0,T).       %% All subterms traversed
    ground(N,T):- 
        N>0, 
        arg(N,T,Arg), 
        ground(Arg), 
        N1 is N-1, 
        ground(N1,T).
    

Dynamic Program Modification (I)

  • assert/1, retract/1, abolish/1, ...
  • Very powerful: allows run-time modification of programs. Can also be used to simulate global variables.
  • Sometimes this is very useful, but very often a mistake:
    • Code hard to read, hard to understand, hard to debug.
    • Typically, slow.
  • Program modification has to be used scarcely, carefully, locally.
  • Still, assertion and retraction can be logically justified in some cases:
    • Assertion of clauses which logically follow from the program. (lemmas)
    • Retraction of clauses which are logically redundant.
  • Other typically non-harmful use: simple global switches.
  • Behavior/requirements may differ between Prolog implementations.
    Typically, the predicate must be declared :- dynamic.

Dynamic Program Modification (II)


  • Example program:
    relate_numbers(X, Y):- assert(related(X, Y)).
    unrelate_numbers(X, Y):- retract(related(X, Y)).
    

  • Example query:
    ?- related(1, 2).
    {EXISTENCE ERROR: ...}
    ?- relate_numbers(1, 2).
    yes
    ?- related(1, 2).
    yes
    ?- unrelate_numbers(1, 2).
    yes
    ?- related(1, 2).
    no
    

  • Rules can be asserted dynamically as well.

Dynamic Program Modification (III)


  • Example program:
        fib(0, 0). 
        fib(1, 1). 
        fib(N, F):-  
            N > 1,        
            N1 is N - 1, 
            N2 is N1 - 1, 
            fib(N1, F1), 
            fib(N2, F2),  
            F is F1 + F2.
    
        lfib(N, F):-  lemma_fib(N, F), !. 
        lfib(N, F):- 
            N > 1,   
            N1 is N - 1,  
            N2 is N1 - 1, 
            lfib(N1, F1), 
            lfib(N2, F2), 
            F is F1 + F2,     
            assert(lemma_fib(N, F)). 
        :- dynamic lemma_fib/2.
        lemma_fib(0, 0). lemma_fib(1, 1).
    

  • Compare fib(24,N) versus lfib(24,N)

Meta-Interpreters

  • clause(head,body):
    • Reads a clause head :- body from the program.
    • For facts body is true.
  • To use clause/2 a predicate must be declared dynamic.
  • Simple (``vanilla'') meta-interpreter:
          solve(true).
          solve((A,B)) :-  solve(A), solve(B).
          solve(A) :-  clause(A,B), solve(B).
    

  • This code can be enhanced to do many tasks: tracing, debugging, explanations in expert systems, implementing other computation rules, ...

  • Issues / interactions with module system.

Incomplete Data Structures

  • Example - difference lists:
    • ``Type'':
          dlist(X-Y) :- var(X), !, X==Y.
          dlist([_|DL]-X) :- dlist(DL-X).
      
      (Non declarative!)
    • Allows us to keep a pointer to the end of the list.
    • Allows appending in constant time:
          append_dl(X-Y,Y-Z,X-Z).
      
      (actually, no call to append_dl is normally necessary)
    • But can only be done once...

  • Also difference trees, open-ended lists and trees, dictionaries, queues, ...

Standard qsort (using append)

qsort([],[]).
qsort([X|L],R) :-
        partition(L,X,L1,L2),
        qsort(L2,R2),
        qsort(L1,R1), 
        append(R1,[X|R2],R).



partition([],_B,[],[]).
partition([E|R],C,[E|Left1],Right):- 
        E < C,
        partition(R,C,Left1,Right).
partition([E|R],C,Left,[E|Right1]):-
        E >= C,
        partition(R,C,Left,Right1).

qsort w/Difference Lists (no append!)

  • First list is normal list, second is built as a difference list.

dlqsort(L,SL) :- dlqsort_(L,SL,[]).

dlqsort_([],R,R).
dlqsort_([X|L],R,R1) :-
        partition(L,X,L1,L2),
        dlqsort_(L1,R,[X|R0]),
        dlqsort_(L2,R0,R1).




% Partition is the same as before.

Parsing (using append and traditional lists)


%% ?- myphrase([t,h,e,' ',p,l,a,n,e,' ',f,l,i,e,s]).

myphrase(X) :-
        append(A,T1,X), article(A), append(SP,T2,T1), spaces(SP),
        append(N,T3,T2), noun(N), append(SPN,V,T3), spaces(SPN), verb(V).

article([a]).
article([t,h,e]).

spaces([' ']).
spaces([' ' | Y]) :- spaces(Y).

noun([c,a,r]).
noun([p,l,a,n,e]).

verb([f,l,i,e,s]).
verb([d,r,i,v,e,s]).

Parsing (using standard clauses and difference lists)


%% ?- myphrase([t,h,e,' ',p,l,a,n,e,' ',f,l,i,e,s],[]).

myphrase(X,CV) :-
        article(X,CA), spaces(CA,CS1), noun(CS1,CN), 
        spaces(CN,CS2), verb(CS2,CV).

article([t,h,e|X],X).
article([a|X],X).

spaces([' ' | X],X).
spaces([' ' | Y],X) :- spaces(Y,X).

noun([p,l,a,n,e | X],X).
noun([c,a,r | X],X).

verb([f,l,i,e,s | X],X).
verb([d,r,i,v,e,s | X],X).

Parsing (same, using some string syntax)


%% ?- myphrase("the plane flies",[]).

myphrase(X,CV) :-
        article(X,CA), spaces(CA,CS1), noun(CS1,CN), 
        spaces(CN,CS2), verb(CS2,CV).

article( "the" || X, X).
article( "a"   || X, X).

spaces( " "    || X, X).
spaces( " "    || Y, X) :- spaces(Y, X).

noun( "plane"  || X, X).
noun( "car"    || X, X).

verb( "flies"  || X, X).
verb( "drives" || X, X).

Parsing (same, using additional syntax: DCGs)


  • Add syntactic transformation to avoid writing all the auxiliary variables.
    The result is called Definite Clause Grammars (``DCGs'').
    %% ?- myphrase("the plane flies",[]).     
    %% or, use ``phrase/2'' builtin:
    %% ?- phrase(myphrase,"the plane flies"). 
    
    :- use_package(dcg).
    
    myphrase --> article, spaces, noun, spaces, verb.
    
    article --> "the".              spaces --> " ".
    article --> "a".                spaces --> " ", spaces.
    
    noun --> "plane".               verb --> "flies".
    noun --> "car".                 verb --> "drives".
    

Parsing + actions (calling Prolog in DCGs)


  • Other actions can be interspersed with the grammar.
    Raw Prolog can be called (between ``{ ... }'')
    %% ?- myphrase(NChars,"the plane flies",[]).
    %% ?- phrase(myphrase(N),"the plane flies").
    
    :- use_package(dcg).
    
    myphrase(N) --> article(AC), spaces(S1), noun(NC), spaces(S2), 
                    verb(VC), { N is AC + S1 + NC + S2 + VC}.
    
    article(3) --> "the".      spaces(1) --> " ".
    article(1) --> "a".        spaces(N) --> " ", spaces(N1), { N is N1+1 }.
    
    noun(5) --> "plane".       verb(5) --> "flies".
    noun(3) --> "car".         verb(6) --> "drives".
    

Creating Executables

  • Most systems have methods for creating 'executables':
    • Saved states (save/1, save_program/2, etc.).
    • Stadalone compilers (e.g., ciaoc).
    • Scripts (e.g., prolog-shell).
    • ``Run-time'' systems.
    • etc.

Other issues in Prolog (see ``The Art of Prolog'' and Bibliography)

  • Repeat loops.

  • Exception handling.

  • Extending the syntax beyond operators: term expansions/macros.

  • Delay declarations/concurrency.

  • Operating system interface (and sockets, etc.).

  • Foreign language (e.g., C) interfaces.

  • Many other built-ins...

  • ...

Some Typical Libraries in Prolog Systems

  • Most systems have a good set of libraries.
  • Worth checking before re-implementing existing functionality!
  • Some examples:

Arrays Assoc Attributes Heaps
Lists Term Utilities Ordset Queues
Random System Utilities Tree UGraphs
WGraphs Sockets Linda/Distribution Persistent DB
CLPB CLPQR CLPFD Objects
GCLA TclTk Tracing Chars I/O
Runtime Utilities Timeout Xrefs WWW
Java Interface ... ... ...

Some Additional Libraries and Extensions (Ciao)

Other systems may offer additional extensions. Some examples from Ciao:

  • Other execution rules:
    • Breadth-first execution
    • Iterative-deepening execution
    • Fuzzy Prolog, MYCIN rules, ...
    • Andorra (``determinate-first'') execution

  • Interfaces to other languages and systems:
    • C, Java, ... interfaces
    • Persistent predicates and SQL database interface
    • Web/HTML/XML/CGI programming (PiLLoW) / HTTP connectivity
    • Interface to VRML (ProVRML)
    • Tcl/Tk interface
    • daVinci interface
    • Calling emacs from Prolog, etc.

Some Additional Libraries and Extensions (Ciao, Contd.)

  • Numerous libraries as well as syntactic and semantic extensions:
    • Terms with named arguments -records/feature terms
    • Multiple argument indexing
    • Functional notation
    • Higher-order
    • The script interpreter
    • Active modules (high-level distributed execution)
    • Concurrency/multithreading
    • Object oriented programming
    • ...

Some Additional Libraries and Extensions (Ciao, Contd.)

  • Constraint programming (CLP)
    • rationals, reals, finite domains, ...

  • Assertions:
    • Regular types
    • Modes
    • Properties which are native to analyzers
    • Run-time checking of assertions

  • Advanced programming support:
    • Compile-time type, mode, and property inference and checking, ... (CiaoPP).
    • Automatic documentation (LPdoc).
    • ...


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